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The range of applications of nanomaterials

Author: YaPeng international Co., Ltd Date: 2013-4-24 Views: 3056 times
1, natural nanomaterials
Sea turtles lay their eggs in a Florida beach, but after the birth of young turtles in search of food, have to swim to the waters around the United Kingdom, in order to survive and grow up. Finally, turtles grew up they would go back to the Florida beach to lay their eggs. This back and forth will take about 5 to 6 years, why turtles can be tens of thousands of kilometers of the trek? They rely on nano-magnetic material within the head, they are accurate navigation.
The biologist also found these in vivo study why pigeons, dolphins, butterflies, bees and other creatures never get lost, there are also nano-materials for their navigation.
2, nano-magnetic materials
Most of the practical application of nanomaterials are artificial. Nano-magnetic material has a very special magnetic properties, the small size of nanoparticles, has the characteristics of high single magnetic domain structure and the coercivity magnetic recording material made of it is not only sound, image and signal-to-noise ratio and record density is several times higher than the gamma-Fe2O3. The superparamagnetic strong magnetic nanoparticles can also be made of a magnetic fluid for electro-acoustic devices, damping devices, rotary seals and lubrication and mineral processing and other fields.
3, nano-ceramic material
Conventional ceramic materials in the grain is easy to slide, crisp material, the sintering temperature is high. Ceramic nano small grain size, grain easy movement in the other grain, therefore, nano-ceramic material having a high strength and high toughness and good ductility, these characteristics make nano-ceramic material can be at room temperature or high temperature under cold working. In the second high temperature processing of nano-ceramic particles forming, and then do the surface annealing treatment, you can make nanomaterials become a surface to maintain the hardness and chemical stability of the conventional ceramic materials, while the internal still has the ductility of nano-materials, high-performance ceramics.
4, nanosensors
Nano zirconia, nickel oxide, titanium oxide ceramics such as sensitive to temperature changes, infrared, and automobile exhaust. Accordingly, it is possible to use them to produce temperature sensor, infrared detector and automobile exhaust detector, the detection sensitivity is much higher than normal grade ceramic sensor.
5, nano-tilt Functional Materials
The inner surface of the combustion chamber in the hydrogen engine in the aerospace, high temperature, the outer surface to be in contact with the coolant. Accordingly, the inner surface of the use of ceramic production, the outer surface of the use made of metal with good thermal conductivity. , But massive ceramic and metal difficult to combine. If production between metal and ceramic its ingredients gradually and continuously changes, metal and ceramic "You have me, I have you, will be able to eventually combine to form an inclined functional materials, it is one of the composition changes like an inclined ladder. When the sintering after is gradually changing requirements mixed with metal and ceramic nanoparticles according to the content, will be able to reach the high temperature of the inside of the combustion chamber, the outside of the requirements of good thermal conductivity.
6, nano-semiconductor materials
Will be made of semiconductor materials such as silicon, gallium arsenide, nano-materials, has many excellent properties. For example, the nano-semiconductor quantum tunnel effect so that some semiconductor materials, electron transporting abnormal decrease in electrical conductivity, electrical thermal conductivity decreases as the particle size decreases, or even negative. These characteristics play an important role in the field of large-scale integrated circuit device, the photovoltaic device.
Semiconductor nanoparticles can be prepared in high photoelectric conversion efficiency, even in the rainy days can also work a new type of solar cell. Since the nano-semiconductor particles by the electrons and holes generated in the irradiation of light having a strong reducing and oxidizing ability, and thus it can be toxic inorganic oxide, degradation of most organic compounds, the resulting non-toxic, odorless carbon dioxide, water, etc., so, by means of a semiconductor nano-particles using solar energy catalytic decomposition of inorganic and organic.
7 nanocatalysis material
Nanoparticles is an excellent catalyst for this is due to the small size of nanoparticles, the larger the volume fraction of the surface, the chemical bonding states of the surface and the electronic states and the interior of the particle type, the surface atoms of ligand insufficiency, leading to an increase in the activity of the surface position, so that it has the basic conditions as a catalyst.
Nanoparticles on nickel or copper and zinc compounds in the hydrogenation of certain organic reaction is an excellent catalyst can replace the expensive platinum or palladium catalyst. Nano platinum black catalyst can make the ethylene oxidation reaction temperature decreased from 600 ° C to room temperature.
8, the medical applications
The size of red blood cells in the blood for 6 000 ~ 9 000 nm, the nanoparticles only a few nanometers in size, in fact, much smaller than the red blood cells, so that it can freely in the blood activity. A variety of therapeutic effect of nanoparticles injected into various parts of the body, they can check the disease and treatment, and its role than traditional injections, the effect of the medication.
Use of nanotechnology to meet the needs of pharmaceutical production process is more sophisticated, and direct use of nanomaterials scale of atoms and molecules arranged in manufacturing of drugs with a specific function. Nanomaterials drug particles will enable the transmission of the human body, wrapped in several layers of nanoparticles smart drugs into the human body can be active search and attack cancer cells or to repair damaged tissue. The novel diagnostic instrument using nanotechnology simply to detect a small amount of blood that can be adopted in which the protein and the DNA diagnosis of various diseases. Modification of the surface of the nanoparticles formed by the special properties of nanoparticles with targeted controlled release drug delivery carrier to facilitate detection, provide a new method for the treatment of local lesions of the body, has opened a new direction for drug development.
9, nano computer
The world's first electronic computer was born in 1945, it is jointly developed by the University and the Department of the Army of the United States, a share of 18,000 electron tubes, with a total weight of 30 t, covers an area of ​​approximately 170 m, can be regarded as a monster, but within 1 s only complete 5000 operations.
After half a century, due to the development of integrated circuit technology, microelectronics, information storage technology, computer languages ​​and programming technology, computer technology has developed rapidly. Today's computer small size, can be placed in a computer desk, it weighs only one ten thousandth of the ancestors, but the speed of operation is far more than the first generation of computer.
If you are using nanotechnology to build a computer device, this computer is a "molecular computers", the extent of its compact and far from today's computer comparable, but also on the material and energy savings will also give the society to a very considerable benefits.
Class of nanomaterials thousands of times in the on-chip memory chip card reader can read the hard drive and storage capacity have been put into production. Computers commonly used nanomaterials, you can narrow the "Pocket PC".
10, carbon nanotubes
In 1991, Nippon Electric Company experts preparing a material known as "carbon nanotubes", which is a combination of a cyclic carbon atom by many hexagonal tubes, also may be formed coaxially few tubes together to form sets. This monolayer and multilayer tubes often are sealed at both ends, as shown.
Composed of carbon atoms tubes the diameter and length of the tube dimensions are nanoscale, it is called carbon nanotubes. Its tensile strength is 100 times higher than that of steel, even higher conductivity than copper.
Carbon nanotubes in air heated to about 700 ° C, the carbon atoms of the top of the tube seal damage due to be oxidized carbon nanotubes into the opening. Then with an electron beam to the low-melting-point metal (such as lead) after evaporation of condensation in the opening of the carbon nanotubes, the metal into the hollow core portion of the carbon nanotubes due to the siphon action. Since the diameter of the carbon nanotubes is very small, so the tube is formed of metal wire is also particularly fine, is known as nanowire, size effect it produces is to exhibit superconductivity. Accordingly, the carbon nanotubes signing the nanowire may become a new type of superconductor.
Nanotechnology in countries around the world is still in its infancy, the United States, Japan, Germany and a few other countries, have begun to take the foundation, but is still being studied, the emergence of new theory and technology is still in the ascendant. China has been trying to catch up with the advanced countries, the research team is also growing stronger.
11, home appliances
Nanomaterials made nanomaterials multi-purpose plastics, antibacterial, odor, anti-corrosion, anti-aging, anti-UV, can be used for refrigerators, air-conditioned housing antibacterial in addition to taste plastic.
12, the Environmental Protection
The field of environmental science will be unique nano-membrane function. This membrane is capable of detecting for the pollution caused by the chemical and biological agents, and be able to filter these formulations, thus eliminating pollution.
13, the textile industry
Synthetic fiber resin nano-SiO2, nano-ZnO nano-SiO2 compound powder material, spinning, weaving, can be made sterilization, mildew, deodorant and anti-ultraviolet radiation underwear and clothing, can be used in the manufacture of anti-bacterial underwear, supplies can be obtained to meet the defense industry requires anti-ultraviolet radiation functional fiber.
14 Machinery Industry
Nano-materials technology the mechanical key parts of the surface of the metal nano-powder coating, can improve the wear resistance, hardness and service life of machinery and equipment.

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