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Nanomaterials Category

Author: YaPeng international Co., Ltd Date: 2013-4-25 Views: 2886 times

The nano nano powder, nano fiber, nano-film and nano-bulk materials can be divided into four categories. Development of nano-powder longest time, the most mature technology is the basis for the production of the other three categories of products.
Nano-powder
Also known as superfine or ultrafine powder, generally refers to a powder or pellets of particle size of 100 nm or less, and is a range of solid particulate material in the intermediate state between the atoms, molecules and macroscopic objects. Can be used: high-density magnetic recording materials; absorbing stealth materials; magnetic fluid material; radiation protection material; silicon and precision optics polishing materials; microchip thermal conductivity of the substrate and the wiring material; the microelectronics packaging material; optoelectronic materials; advanced battery electrode materials; solar cell materials; efficient catalyst; efficient accelerant; sensitive components; high toughness ceramic material (do not throw crack the ceramic used in the ceramic engine); body repair materials; such as anti-cancer agents.
Nanofibers
Refers to the diameter of the nano-scale and length of the linear material. Can be used: micro-wires, micro-fiber (future quantum computer with photonic computer components) materials; new laser or light emitting diode material. The electrospinning method is a method for preparing a simple inorganics nanofibers.
Nano-film
Nano-film is divided into granule membrane with the dense membrane. Particle film is nano-particles stick together, and an intermediate film of an extremely small gap. The dense film refers to a dense film, but a grain size of nanoscale thin film. Can be used for: gas catalysts (such as automotive exhaust gas) material; filter material; high-density magnetic recording materials; photosensitive material; flat panel display materials; superconducting materials.
Nano-bulk
Nano-bulk the nanocrystals material nano powder pressure molding or control the metal liquid crystal.
Main purpose: ultra-high-strength materials; intelligent metal and other materials.

Preparation method
(1) The inert gas evaporated under coacervation. Usually by having a cleaning surface, the particle size of 100 nm particles by hydroforming from nano-ceramic sintering. Foreign pressurized with inert gas evaporation and vacuum in situ method has been successfully developed a variety of nano solid materials, including metals and alloys, ceramics, ionic crystals, amorphous and semiconductor nano-solid materials. China also successful using this method made of metals, semiconductors, ceramics and other nanomaterials.
(2) chemical methods: a hydrothermal method, including hydrothermal precipitation, synthesis, decomposition and crystallization, suitable for the preparation of nano-oxide; 2 hydrolysis Law, including the sol - gel method, the solvent evaporation decomposition, latex method and evaporation separation method.
(3) an integrated approach. Combined with physical vapor phase method and the preparation method is formed by the chemical vapor deposition method. Other ships ball milling machining, injection processing method.

Research
Nanotechnology as one of the most emerging market potential applications of science and technology, its potential importance Needless to say, some developed countries have invested a lot of money for research. Such as the United States was founded nanotechnology research center, the Japanese Ministry of Culture and Education Division as nanotechnology, materials science four key research and development projects. Nanotechnology Research Center, the University of Hamburg and Mainz University in Germany, the annual government invested $ 65 million support micro-system. In the country, a number of research institutes, universities, organization of scientific research forces, to carry out the work of nanotechnology research, and have achieved a certain amount of research, notably the following:
Directed the synthesis of carbon nanotubes array solution thinking deep researcher from the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics. They use a chemical vapor phase method to the efficient preparation of a pore size of about 20 nm, the carbon nanotubes of a length of about 100 microns. And thereby preparing a nanotube array, an area of ​​3 mm × 3 mm, and a pitch of 100 microns between the carbon nanotubes.
The GaN nanorods prepared by Tsinghua University Professor Fan Shoushan completed. The first time they use carbon nanotubes prepared from 3 to 40 nm in diameter, the length of micron semiconductor GaN nanorods, and put forward the concept of carbon nanotubes limiting reaction. And Stanford University Professor Dai Hongjie cooperation in the international arena for the first time on a silicon substrate self-organized growth of carbon nanotube array.
The quasi the Wiener Sphacelotheca and nano-cable, completed by the Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences researcher Zhang Lide. They carbothermal reduction, sol - gel soft chemical method combined with new technologies such as nano-droplet epitaxy, was first synthesized of tantalum carbide nanowires outsourcing insulator SiO2 nano-cable.
Catalytic thermal solution made of nano-diamond, Qian Yitai Shandong University. They make catalytic pyrolysis reaction of carbon tetrachloride and sodium, in order to prepare the nano diamond powder.
However, compared with the advanced technology of the developed countries, we have a big gap. Ministry of Science and Technology of Germany had predicted nanotechnology future market potential: they believe to 2000, the nanostructure devices market capacity will reach $ 637.5 billion, nano-powders, nano-composite ceramics and other nanocomposites market capacity will reach 545.7 billion dollars, nanofabrication technology market capacity will reach 44.2 billion U.S. dollars, nano-materials technology for evaluating market capacity will reach $ 2.72 billion. And predict the breakthrough in the market may be in the field of information, communication, environment and medicine.
In short, nanotechnology is becoming the focus of attention of the national scientific and technical community, as Academician Qian foretold: "nanometers and nano-structures below will be the characteristics of the next phase of technological development, will be a technological revolution, which will be 21 another century industrial revolution. "[2]?
October 19, 2011, the European Commission recently passed a definition of nanomaterials, and later explained this definition. Nanomaterials are defined according to the European Commission, a powdery composition of the base particles or corporation of lumpy natural or artificial materials, the basic particles of one or a plurality of three-dimensional size between 1 nm to 100 nm, and this the total quantity of the base particles is more than 50% in the total number of all the particles of the entire material.
1 nanometer is one billionth of a meter. At the nanoscale, some material has many special features. Nanomaterials have been widely used in people's work and life.
In the definition of nanomaterials by the European Commission, why limit the primary particle size between 1 nm to 100 nm? The European Commission believes that most nanomaterials known basic components of the particles are within this range, of course, the material outside this range may also be having the characteristics of nanomaterials. This provision is to make clear criteria.
Why the requirements of the total quantity of primary particles in nano-materials, more than 50% in the total of all the particles throughout the material? The European Commission believes that the low proportion of nanoparticles nano characteristics which will submerge the entire material, 50% is a more appropriate proportion. In addition, the ratio of the number of nanoparticles rather than mass ratio as a measure of nanomaterials, to better reflect the characteristics of nanomaterials. Because of some nanomaterials low density, in the case of a smaller mass proportion has been able to show the characteristics of nanomaterials.
Why nano-materials, including natural materials? The European Commission believes that nanomaterials should be defined in accordance with the basic components of the particle size, whether it is natural or man-made. In fact, some of the natural materials also have the characteristics of manufactured nanomaterials.
Why exclude nanostructures materials nanomaterials? The European Commission believes that this material has the characteristics of nano-materials, but also can not clearly defined nanostructures, and thus does not have the operability.
Why products containing nanomaterials not nanomaterials? European Commission believes that the nano-material is a mixture of raw materials or raw materials, and products made with other materials, the formation of new materials with other materials, the thus obtained product is no longer nanomaterials.
However, the European Commission acknowledged that this definition there are imperfections, and therefore decided to amend this definition in 2014, according to the actual implementation of the development of technology and definitions.

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